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400 ESL GRE Vocabulary 4

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renege:
/rɪ'ni:g/ v. Syn. deny
deny; go back on; fail to fulfill promise or obligation
He tried to renege on paying off his debt.

rent:
/rɛnt/ n.
payment, usually of an amount fixed by contract
Oh, did I mention that the rent is the same as what I'm paying here?

reprobate:
/'rɛproʊbeɪt/ n.
person hardened in sin; person without moral scruples
I cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you say he is.

reproof:
/rɪ'pru:f/ n.
expression of blame or censure; censure for a fault; reproach
The perplexity and dissatisfaction of the house expressed itself in murmurs and provoked a reproof from the bench.

repudiate:
/rɪ'pju:dɪeɪt/ v. Syn. disown
disown; refuse to acknowledge; reject validity or authority of
On separating from Tony, Tina announced that she would repudiate all debts incurred by her soon-to-be ex-husband.

rescind:
/rɪ'sɪnd/ v. Syn. cancel; annul; repeal
cancel; make void; repeal or annul
To change or rescind is justified only when re-estimate of all of the available facts.

resolute:
/'rɛzəlu:t/ a. Syn. firm; determined; decided
firm, unyielding, or determined; having decided purpose
Louise was resolute: She would get into medical school no matter what.

reticent:
/'rɛtɪsənt/ a.
inclined to keep silent; reserved; uncommunicative.
It commanded its followers to be reticent � to never degrade intimate emotions by parading them in public.

reverent:
/'rɛvərənt/ a. Syn. respectful; worshipful
respectful; worshipful; impressed with veneration or deep respect
Though I bow my head in church and recite the prayers, sometimes I don't feel properly reverent.

rhetoric:
/'rɛtərɪk/ n.
art or study of using language effectively and persuasively; insincere language
If his rhetoric is any indication, the president appears to be headed in the right direction.

rue:
/ru:/ v. Syn. regret; lament; mourn
feel regret, remorse, or sorrow for; mourn
Tina seemed to rue the night she met Tony and wondered how she ever fell for such a jerk.

sagacious:
/sə'geɪʃəs/ a. Syn. perceptive; shrewd
perceptive; shrewd; having insight
My father was a sagacious judge of character: he could spot a phony a mile away.

salacious:
/sə'leɪʃəs/ a. Syn. lascivious; lustful
lustful; suggestive of or tending to moral looseness
Chaucer's monk is not pious but salacious. a teller of lewd tales and ribald jests.

salubrious:
/sə'lu:brɪəs/ a. Syn. healthful
healthful; favorable to health; promoting health; wholesome
Many people with hay fever move to more salubrious sections of the country during the months of August and September.

salutary:
/'sæljʊtərɪ/;/-tɛrɪ/ a. Syn. beneficial; wholesome
tending to improve; beneficial; favorable to health
The punishment had a salutary effect on the boy, as he became a model student.

sanction:
/'sæŋkʃ(ə)n/ v. Syn. approve; ratify
give authorization or approval to something; penalize a state, especially for violating international law
Nothing will convince me to sanction the engagement of my daughter to such a worthless young man.

satiate:
/'seɪʃɪeɪt/ v.
satisfy fully; overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself
Having stuffed themselves until they satiate, the guests are so full they are ready for a nap.

saturnine:
/'sætənaɪn/ a. Syn. gloomy
gloomy; marked by tendency to be bitter or sardonic
Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance; he is not as gloomy as he looks.

sedulous:
/'sɛdjʊləs/;/'sɛdʒʊləs/ a. Syn. diligent; hardworking
diligent; hardworking; persevering and constant in effort or application
After weeks of patient and sedulous labor, we completed our detailed analysis of every published SAT examination.

shard:
/ʃɑrd/ n.
fragment of brittle substance, as of glass or metal; piece of broken pottery, especially one found in archaeological dig
The archaeologist assigned several students the task of reassembling earthenware vessels except the shard he had brought back from the expedition.

simper:
/'sɪmpə(r)/ v. Syn. smirk
smirk; smile in artificial way to make an impression
. Complimented on her appearance, Stella had to self-consciously simper.

sinuous:
/'sɪnjʊəs/ a. Syn. curving; twisting
winding; bending in and out; not morally honest
The snake moved in a sinuous manner.

slake:
/sleɪk/ v. Syn. moderate; slacken
make less active or intense; satisfy thirst
When we reached the oasis, we were able to slake our thirst.

solicitous:
/sə'lɪsɪtəs/ a. Syn. worried; concerned
worried or concerned; full of desire; expressing care or concern
The employer was very solicitous about the health of her employees as replacements were difficult to get.

soporific:
/sɒpə'rɪfɪk/ a.
sleep-causing; marked by sleepiness
Professor Pringle's lectures were so soporific that even he fell asleep in class.

sordid:
/'sɔ:dɪd/ a. Syn. filthy; vile; dirty; foul
filthy; unethical or dishonest; dirty; foul; morally degraded
Many of these files contain sordid details about the personal lives of the litigants.

specious:
/'spi:ʃəs/ a.
seemingly reasonable but incorrect; misleading intentionally
To claim that, because houses and birds both have wings, both can fly, is extremely specious reasoning.

sporadic:
/spə'rædɪk/ a.
occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time
Although you can still hear sporadic outbursts of laughter and singing outside, the big Halloween parade has passed; the party's over till next year.

spurious:
/'spjʊərɪəs/ a. Syn. false; counterfeit; forged; illogical
false; counterfeit; forged; illogical
Natasha's claim to be the lost heir of the Romanoffs was spurious: the only thing Russian about her was the vodka she drank!.

stint:
/stɪnt/ n. Syn. supply; limitation; restriction; task
length of time spent in particular way; allotted amount; limitation or restriction; fixed amount of work allotted
She still plans to work on winning a real Grammy now that her "Dancing" stint is done.

stoic:
/'stoʊɪk/ a. Syn. impassive
indifferent to or unaffected by joy, grief, pleasure, or pain
I wasn't particularly stoic when I had my flu shot; I squealed like a stuck pig.

stolid:
/'stɒlɪd/ a. Syn. dull; impassive
dull; impassive; having or revealing little emotion or sensibility
The earthquake shattered Stuart's usual stolid demeanor; trembling, he crouched on the no longer stable ground.

striated:
/straɪ'eɪtɪd/;/'straɪeɪtɪd/ a. Syn. grooved
having parallel lines or grooves on surface
The glacier left many striated rocks.

strut:
/strʌt/ v. Syn. swagger
display in order to impress others; swagger; walk with a lofty proud gait
Don't strut out your resume until you have more accomplishments to list.

subpoena:
/səb'pi:nə/ n.
written order to require appearance in court to give testimony
But you know a subpoena is an order of the court to appear and if called to appear I'll appear.

succinct:
/sək'sɪŋkt/ a. Syn. brief; terse; compact
brief or compact; by clear, precise expression in few words
Don't bore your audience with excess verbiage: be succinct.

tacit:
/'tæsɪt/ a.
indicated or understood without expressed directly; not speaking; silent
We have a tacit agreement based on only a handshake.

taciturn:
/'tæsɪtə:n/ a. Syn. silent
silent or reserved in speech; saying little; not inclined to speak or converse
The stereotypical cowboy is a taciturn soul, answering lengthy questions with a "Yep" or "Nope.".

talisman:
/'tælɪsmɛn, 'tælɪzmən/ n. Syn. charm
charm to bring good luck and avert misfortune; something that apparently has magic power
According to the myth, the talisman is the most powerful of all the magical charms.

temperate:
/'tɛmpərət/ a. Syn. restrained
restrained; self-controlled; moderate in degree or quality
Try to be temperate in your eating this holiday season; if you control your appetite, you won't gain too much weight.

tendentious:
/tɛn'dɛnʃəs/ a.
having or marked by a strong tendency
The editorials in this periodical are tendentious rather than truth-seeking.

tenuous:
/'tɛnjʊəs/ a. Syn. thin; rare; slim
long and thin; slender; having little substance
The allegiance of our allies is held by rather tenuous ties; we all should see it's in dangerous.

terse:
/tɜrs/ a. Syn. concise; brief
effectively concise; appearing as if wiped or rubbed, as smooth
There is a fine line between speech that is terse and to the point and speech that is too abrupt.

timorous:
/'tɪmərəs/ a. Syn. fearful
fearful; demonstrating fear; weakly hesitant
His timorous manner betrayed the fear he felt at the moment.

tirade:
/taɪ'reɪd/;/'taɪreɪd/ n.
extended scolding; long angry or violent speech
Your tirade is juvenile, hypocritical, and dare I say, unprofessional.

torpid:
/'tɔ:pɪd/ a.
having lost motion, or the power of exertion and feeling; numb; benumbed
The two ships becalmed on a torpid sea, I believed to be marine phantoms.

tortuous:
/'tɔ:tjʊəs/ a. Syn. winding; devious
marked by repeated turns or bends; winding or twisting; not straightforward; circuitous
Because this road is so tortuous, it is unwise to go faster than twenty miles an hour on it.

tractable:
/'træktəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. docile
easily managed or controlled; governable; easily handled or worked; docile
Although Susan seemed a tractable young woman, she had a stubborn streak of independence.

trenchant:
/'trɛntʃənt/ a. Syn. incisive; keen
forceful, effective, and vigorous; sharp or keen
I am afraid of his trenchant wit for it is so often sarcastic.

truculent:
/'trukjələnt, 'trʌkjʊlənt/ a. Syn. belligerent
disposed to fight; belligerent; aggressively hostile
The bully was initially truculent but eventually stopped picking fights at the least provocation.

turbid:
/'tɜrbɪd/ a. Syn. muddy
muddy; having sediment disturbed; heavy, dark, or dense, as smoke or fog
The water was turbid after the children had waded through it.

turgid:
/'tɜrdʒɪd/ a. Syn. swollen; distended
swollen; distended; excessively ornate or complex in style or language
The turgid river threatened to overflow the levees and flood the countryside.

turpitude:
/'tɜrpɪtju:d/;/-tu:d/ n. Syn. depravity
depravity; corrupt, depraved, or degenerate act
A visitor may be denied admittance to this country if she has been guilty of moral turpitude.

tyro:
/'taɪroʊ/ n. Syn. beginner; novice
beginner in learning something; novice
For a mere tyro, you have produced some wonderfully expert results.

untoward:
/ʌntə'wɔ:d/;/ʌn'tɔ:rd/ a.
contrary to your interests or welfare; inconvenient; troublesome
You're obviously pretty confident nothing untoward is going to be happening in front of your webcam at these intervals!

vacillate:
/'væsɪleɪt/ v. Syn. waver; fluctuate
sway unsteadily from one side to the other; oscillate
The big boss likes his people to be decisive: when he asks you for your opinion, whatever you do, don't vacillate.

venal:
/'vi:n(ə)l/ a.
capable of being bribed; for sale, available for a price; corrupt
The venal policeman cheerfully accepted the bribe offered him by the speeding motorist whom he had stopped.

venerate:
/'vɛnəreɪt/ v.
treat with great respect and deference; consider hallowed or be in awe of
In Tibet today, the common people still venerate their traditional spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.

verbose:
/vɜr'boʊs/ a. Syn. wordy
wordy; using or containing a great and usually an excessive number of words
Someone mute can't talk; someone verbose can hardly stop talking.

vindicate:
/'vɪndɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. exonerate
clear from blame; exonerate; maintain, uphold, or defend
The lawyer's goal was to vindicate her client and prove him innocent on all charges.

vindictive:
/vɪn'dɪktɪv/ a. Syn. revengeful
seek revenge or intended for revenge; showing malicious will
Her neck and arms were full of scars from a vindictive rage by her husband's relatives, who believed her guilty of his death.

viscous:
/'vɪskəs/ a. Syn. sticky; gluey
sticky; gluey; having high resistance to flow
Melted tar is a viscous substance.

volatile:
/'vɒlətaɪl/;/-tl/ a. Syn. changeable; explosive; fickle
tending to vary often or widely, as in price; inconstant or fickle; tending to violence
Increases in volatile weather have alarming impact on business resources and insurance markets.

voracious:
/və'reɪʃəs/ a. Syn. ravenous
ravenous; excessively greedy and grasping; devouring or craving food in great quantities
The wolf is a voracious animal, its hunger never satisfied.

waver:
/'weɪvə(r)/ v.
play or move to and fro; move one way and the other; swing; be unsettled in opinion
The disaster caused him to waver in his faith.

welter:
/'wɛltə(r)/ n. Syn. turmoil
turmoil; bewildering jumble; confused mass
The existing welter of overlapping federal and state programs cries out for immediate reform.

whimsical:
/'wɪmzɪk(ə)l/ a. Syn. capricious
determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason; capricious
The hero is a playful, whimsical man who takes a notion to dress up as a woman so that he can look after his children, who are in the custody of his ex-wife.

zealot:
/'zɛlət/ n. Syn. fanatic
fanatically committed person; person who shows excessive zeal
Though Glenn was devout, he was no zealot, he never tried to force his beliefs on his friends.

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